Islam is based on 5 pillars, not 6 or 7 like some would like you to believe. These 5 pillars are the framework and of the Muslim life: faith, prayer, zakat, fast, and pilgrimage to Makkah for those who are able.
This is also known as the "Shahadda", the declaration of one's faith and testimony that there is no God worthy of worship except Allah and that Muhammad is His messenger.
The prayer is obligatory on all Muslims who are of age (past puberty). Prayers are 5 times a day at certain times and differ from region to region, they are: dawn, noon, mid-noon, sunset, and evening. Prayer should be recited in Arabic, the language of the revelation. Prayer can be performed anywhere, for men it is preferable to be performed in a mosque in congregation. For women on the other hand it is best for them to pray in a place where they are not visible to anyone. Women are not allowed to pray when they are menstruating since they are in a state of impurity.
The literal meaning of the word is a purification or growth. The most important principle of Islam is knowing that all things belong to God, and that whatever wealth you attain in this world it is entrusted to you. Zakat it is calculated on a yearly basis and varies per individual. You can voluntarily give more as sadaqa.
Every year during the month of Ramadan, all Muslims fast from Fajr (morning prayer) to Maghrib (sunset prayer), abstaining from food, drink, and sexual relations. For those who are not able to fast such as the sick, elderly, on a journey, and women who are pregnant or nursing are permitted to break the fast which they will have to make up an equal number of days before the next Ramadan.
Pilgrimage is an obligation on those who are physically fit and can afford to perform it. You should always make the intention to go to Hajj whether you can go or not, it's a good intention to always renew.